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如何保持螺杆泵抽油的高产率

如何保持螺杆泵抽油的高产率
How to keep pumping oil in high yield screw pump

全世界最通用的机械采油法是螺杆泵抽油,而其最常见的作业问题是泵不能完全充满,造成生产率低,泵不完全充满是由于泵的容量大于井的产量或泵吸入口处气分离不好,一部分泵排量受气干扰而损失,如果消除泵内气的干扰和控制泵的运转时间,使泵排量与流入井底的液量相匹配,就可以提高效率和降低成本。保持螺杆泵抽油的高产率的具体做法如下:
The world's most common mechanical screw pumping oil law, and its most common operating problem is that pumps can not be completely filled, resulting in low productivity, pump not completely filled due to the pump capacity is greater than the output of wells or pump suction inlet Office gas separation is not good, part of the pump displacement end in disappointment or loss of interference, if the gas pump to eliminate the interference and control of pump operation time of the pump displacement and the amount of fluid into the bottom match, you can improve efficiency and reduce costs . Screw to maintain the rate of pumping of high-yielding specific practices are as follows:

1、应进行声波液面测定,确定产液面与泵吸入口的相对深度。若液面高于泵吸入口,那么井不可能以最大产量开采。如果是气干扰影响产率,则液面高于泵吸入口;若是抽量过大导致低产,则液面应在泵吸入口处或附近。
1, surface acoustic wave should be carried out to determine the output surface and the relative depth of pump suction. If the liquid level above the pump intake, it is impossible to maximum yield of extraction wells. If the disturbance affecting the yield, then the liquid level above the pump suction port; if excessive pumping results in low, then the liquid level should be pumping at or near the entrance.

2、示功计测定泵充满系数百分率,应用综合数据采集系统可同时获得马达功率和示功数据。示功图的主要用途之一是诊断泵是怎样运行的和分析井下问题。应用生产液面测量结合示功图可了解井是否以最大产量生产、液柱高度是否高于泵吸入口深度、泵是否不完全充满和游离气是否沿套管环空向上运移。
2, showing the power factor of the percentage of total measured pump filled with the application integrated data acquisition system can simultaneously receive data on motor power and the dynamometer. Indicator diagram, one of the main purposes is to diagnose how the pump is running and analysis of the problem underground. Application of the production level measurement with indicator diagram can understand whether the maximum yield of the production wells, the liquid column height is higher than the pump intake depth, pump is not completely full and free gas is upward migration along the casing annulus.

3、诊断低能效井。诊断的方法是确定抽油系统的总效率,而确定总效率只需测量输入原动机的功率、测定井底生产压力和精确的生产测试数据。一般游梁式抽油系统的总效率应为50%左右,若低于此应提高其性能。提高总效率的技术包括保持高容积效率(泵的规格与井筒注入量匹配、消除气干扰、用抽空控制器或定时器控制抽油)和换掉过大的电动机。
3, diagnostic inefficient wells. Diagnosis method is to determine the overall efficiency of pumping system, but simply determine the overall efficiency of the original motivation for measuring input power, measured bottomhole producing pressure and accurate production of test data. General beam pumping system should be the overall efficiency of about 50% if less than this should improve its performance. Improve the overall efficiency of the technology, including maintaining a high volumetric efficiency (the pump shaft into the specification and the amount of matching, to eliminate disturbance, with taking the time to control or timer control pumping), and replace the motor too much.

4、井下气分离。无效的泵运转常是气干扰造成的,可通过声波液面测量和示功图进行诊断。最好是将泵吸入口置于流体进入层段的下方,若置于上方则应使用气体分离器。若阀座短节布置于流体进入层段底部以下至少10ft,则在环空中可发生有效气分离,此时套管起分离器外筒的作用。但井的条件常不容许将泵置于流体进入层下方,则考虑用井下气分离器。常规的气分离器由流体进入部分(如射孔短节)、外筒(如底部有堵头的一节油管)和泵底部的封液管组成。
4, downhole gas separator. Invalid pump operation is often disturbance caused by sound level measurement and indicator diagram for diagnosis. It would be better placed on pump suction fluid entering the bottom layer of segment, if placed in the top of the gas separator should be used. If a short section of the valve seat arranged in the fluid into the layer at the bottom of the following paragraph of at least 10ft, the air may occur in the ring of effective gas separation, time separation of casing from the outside and barrel role. However, the condition often does not allow wells to pump fluid into the layer below the place, then consider the use of downhole gas separator. Conventional gas separation is controlled by fluid entering a part (such as perforation short section), outer tube (eg, plug in the bottom of a pipeline), and pump at the bottom of the sealing liquid tube.

5、控制泵排量,可通过调节4种参数进行控制:柱塞尺寸、冲程长度、泵冲数、每日运转时间。因起出设备费用大,通常不更换尺寸不合适的泵。最简单的做法是改变地面设备的配置,如移动游梁拉杆来改变地面和泵的冲程长度;其次是换掉马达皮带轮来控制泵的冲数。泵容积与井产能的匹配问题可通过改变日运转时间来实现,以下几种装置能用来控制运转时间:空抽控制器、间隔定时器和百分率定时器。空抽控制器若检测到泵不完全充满就停泵。定时器控制泵的运转时间,较便宜且操作简单。停泵的持续时间应短到井底生产压力上升不超过10%的油层压力。
5, control pump displacement can be carried out by adjusting the parameters of four kinds of control: plunger size, stroke length, the number of red pumps, daily operating hours. Due to the cost of equipment from a large, usually do not replace the inappropriate size of the pump. The easiest way is to change the configuration of ground-based equipment, such as moving beam bar to change the ground and the pump stroke length;, followed by replacing the pump motor pulley to control the number of red. Pump volume and well productivity matching problem can be run by changing the date time to achieve the following types of devices can be used to control the running time: air pump controller, interval timer and percentage timer. Air pump controller, if not completely filled to detect pump stopped pumping. Timer control pump operation time, less expensive and easy to operate. Stop the pump duration should be short and to the bottom-hole producing pressure rise no more than 10% of the reservoir pressure.

作业者可对每口井用45min进行上述声波、示功计等测定,确定井的产能、井下泵动态、井下气分离器动态、抽油杆和游梁式抽油机负荷、马达动态。通过45min的分析,作业者可使井产量达到最大,作业成本降低。
Operators can be used for each wells 45min to carry out such sound waves, showing the power meter, etc. to determine the capacity of wells, downhole pumps dynamic, down-hole gas separator dynamics, rod and beam pumping unit load, motor dynamics. Through the 45min analysis, operators can maximize well production, operating cost reduction。

 

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